Primo Guide

O l f a c t o r y

Broadly tuned polymer chemical sensor
arrays that emulate mammalian olfactory receptor neurons.

Electronic/artificial nose can detect and classify odors, vapors and gases.  The augmented biological nose to electronic
smart nose stage is composed of a
chemical sensing system along with
pattern recognition to work in correlation
to enhance memory via smell association.
The electronic nose protects and warns
owner of potential danger as well as
adds to visual replay recognition via
smell association.

A Multi-disciplinary approach by CalTech
to design an electronic nose spans neurobiology, chemistry and electronic engineering. The goal is to develop construction of a silicon "nose on a chip."

"The olfactory receptors are proteins that
sit on the surface of your nerve cells,
in the upper reaches of your
nasal cavity." (Digsents)



In 600 BC nasal reconstruction was
written by using a forehead flap over a
nasal defect. (Samhita Sushruta, India).

Much later, in the late 1800s, improvements
in anesthesia techniques encouraged
surgeons to augment the nose with such materials as paraffin, gold, silver, aluminum, platinum, porcelain, celluloid, ivory, cork
and some stones from the Black Sea.

The molecules entering your nose bind
with these proteins, triggering a cascade
of events. As a result, signals are
transmitted to your brain, where we experience smell.

Experts say that humans (and early transhumans) smell anywhere from 3000-4000 to 10,000-30,000 smells. According to neuroscientist Dr. Stuart Firestein, we can "detect and discriminate between 10,000 different chemicals which we commonly call 'odors.' This is probably the most sophisticated chemical detector that we know of."

"Smells and scents elicit very strong messages to human sensory networks. They can evoke vivid memories that have long been buried in our subconscious. The sense of smell is often the first sense alerted to danger or even slight changes in the environment." (Ruef)

As animal species became more complex, creatures continued to use their sense of smell to find food and water, evade predators, track prey, and recognize and attract mates.